National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases  

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Name Dr. Asish Kumar Mukhopadhyay
Educational Qualification M.Sc., Ph.D.
Date of birth 11th July 1967
Designation Scientist D
Division Bacteriology
  E-mail   asish_mukhopadhyay@yahoo.com
     
  Specialization   Microbiologist
     
  Date of joining ICMR   4th March 2003
     

 

Professional Experience

After finishing M.Sc. from University of Calcutta, he started research under Dr. G. Balakrish Nair at the division of Microbiology on the epidemiology, evolution and virulence of Vibrio cholerae, for his doctoral thesis. His thesis research focused on population and molecular analyses of Vibrio cholerae, to gain insights into the interplay between environmental and human disease reservoirs, and genetic factors that make certain lineages of this organism highly virulent to humans. This thesis research resulted around 30 publications in national and international journals. After completion the Ph.D., he moved to research with Dr. Douglas E. Berg, Professor of Molecular Microbiology and of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine at Saint Louis, USA and worked for five years as research associate. He was particularly interested on the genetic diversity, population genetics and genome evolution of Helicobacter pylori and also contributed importantly to our elucidation of mechanisms of susceptibility and resistance to metronidazole, a critical component of combination therapies that are used against Helicobacter pylori. His detailed analysis of virulence-associated genes and house-keeping genes that are under selective pressures showed that Indian H. pylori gene pool is distinct from the Hp gene pools of other parts of the world. His additional studies had contributed importantly to our understanding of the global population dynamics of transposable elements of H. pylori and how they may affect the vigor or virulence of pathogens and Hp genome evolution as well. In addition to the contributions to the Hp field, he performed detailed fundamentally important analysis of CTX prophages and pathogenicity islands in a subset of environmental strains of Vibrio cholerae. Although there have been anecdotal reports in the past of an allele or of a gene of possible evolutionary or medical interest in environmental V. cholerae strains, this work stands out in its rigor and depth of analysis and for the wealth of information gained. After 5 years of postdoctoral research at USA, which resulted 23 publications at peer-reviewed international journals, he joined to the scientific cadre of NICED in March 2003. Besides that, he also worked at the Department of Bacteriology, Nagasaki University, Japan under Prof. T. Hirayama on different aspects of vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) of H. pylori for 6 months in 2006.

Research Interests

Helicobacter pylori is a major cause of peptic ulcers and an early risk factor for gastric cancer, and has been classified as a type I carcinogen by the World Health Organization. Although more than 50% of the world population is infected with this organism, it is still an enigma why majority of them remains asymptomatic as specific traits that enable a small proportion of this genetically diverse bacterium in the pathogenesis are poorly understood. CagA protein of H. pylori is thought to be the key player in disease development and his major focus is to understand how the polymorphic structure of the protein involves in the precipitation of pathogenic activity of the protein. He is also interested on the population and molecular genetic analyses of H. pylori, a microaerophilic bacterium with the extraordinary ability to establish multi-decade long infections in human stomachs, along with the study for drug resistance mechanisms.

H. pylori infection is a contributor to the risk of other food and water borne infections and it may also increase susceptibility to or severity of infection by V. cholerae, and conversely, V. cholerae infection may facilitate H. pylori transmission. These two features are of special interest for him, given his background in both in V. cholerae and H. pylori.

Recently, he has been very successful in adapting Indian H. pylori strains to the murine infection model which will provide further insight into the biological activities of H. pylori virulence proteins and their contributions to bacterial fitness and this holds great promise for functional genomic analyses of infection and disease processes. Another important pathogen of recent interest is Campylobacter, a significant cause of gastric illness world wide, where the research theme is molecular epidemiology including genomic analysis to provide protected public health.

Projects

i) Intramural :

  • Characterization of the cag pathogenicity island of Helicobacter pylori isolated in Kolkata with reference to interleukin-8 secretion
     
  • Genomic analysis of multidrug resistant Campylobacter species isolated from diarrhoeal patients in Kolkata(Funded by Institute)

ii) Extramural :

  • Evolution of CTX prophages of V. cholerae O1 and O139 strains in Kolkata over a decade (Funded by Okayama University, Japan).
     
  • Elucidation and analysis of Biological Function(s) of Helicobacter pylori Restriction-Modification systems (Funded by DBT, India).
  • Comparative analysis of the Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from North East India with other parts of India in causing gastro-duodenal diseases (Funded by DBT, India)
  • Retrospective analysis on the evolutionary aspects of Vibrio cholerae (Funded by NIID, Japan)

 

Pre-doctoral and Post-doctoral Students

  • Ms. RajashreePatra (Awarded)
  • Mr. Amit Raychoudhuri (Awarded)
  • Ms. Ronita De (Awarded)
  • Mr. JavedAlam (Awarded)
  • Ms. Piyali Mukherjee (Pre-doctoral)
  • Mr. Arindam Naha (Pre-doctoral)
  • Mr. Prachetash Ghosh (Pre-doctoral)
  • Ms. Priyanka Ghosh (Pre-doctoral)
  • Mr. Bipul Chandra Karmakar (Pre-doctoral)
  • Dr. Avijit Sarkar (Working as ICMR Post-doc)

 
 
PUBLICATIONS OF ASISH KUMAR MUKHOPADHYAY Profile 
 
[2014]
1. Pazhani G. P., S. K. Bhowmik, S. Ghosh, S. Guin, S. Dutta, K. Rajendran, D. R. Saha, R. K. Nandy, M. K. Bhattacharya, A. K.Mukhopadhyay, and T. Ramamurthy. 2014. Trends in the epidemiology of pandemic and non-pandemic strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from diarrheal patients in Kolkata, India. PLoSNegl Trop Dis.:e2815
 
2. Mukherjee P, T. Ramamurthy, U. Mitra, and A. K. Mukhopadhyay. 2014 Emergence of high-level azithromycin resistance in Campylobacter jejuni isolated from PaediatricDiarrhoea cases in Kolkata, India. Antimicrob Agents & Chemother58:4248.
 
3. Koley H., N. Ray, G. Chowdhury, S. Barman, S. Mitra, T. Ramamurthy, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, B. L. Sarkar, R. Katyal., P. Das, S. Panda, and S. Ghosh. 2014. An Outbreak of Cholera Caused by a single clone of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Variant Strain in Bihar, India, Jpn J Infect Dis.67:221-226.
 
4. Ghosh P., A. Naha, S. Basak, S. Ghosh, T. Ramamurthy, H. Koley, R.K. Nandy, S. Shinoda, H. Watanabe, A. K. Mukhopadhyay. 2014. Haitian Variant tcpA in Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains of Kolkata, India. J Clin Microbiol. 52:1020-1021.
 
 
[2013]
1. Chowdhury, G., A. Sarkar, G. P. Pazhani, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, M. K. Bhattacharya and T. Ramamurthy. 2013. An Outbreak of Foodborne Gastroenteritis Caused by Dual Pathogens, Salmonella enterica serovar Weltevreden and Vibrio fluvialis in Kolkata, India. Foodborne Pathogens and Dis. 10:904-906
     
2. Mukherjee, P., T. Ramamurthy, M. K. Bhattacharya, K. Rajendran, and A. K. Mukhopadhyay. 2013. Campylobacter jejuni in Hospitalized patients with Diarrhea, Kolkata, India. Emerg Infect Dis.19:1155-1156
3. Naha, A., G. Chowdhury, J. Ghosh-Banerjee, M. Senoh, T. Takahashi, B. Ley, K. Thriemer, J. Deen, L. V. Seidlein, S. M. Ali, A. Khatib, T. Ramamurthy, R.K. Nandy, G.B. Nair, Y. Takeda and A.K. Mukhopadhyay. 2013. Molecular Characterization of High Cholera Toxin-Producing El Tor Variant Vibrio cholerae in the Zanzibar Archipelago of Tanzania. J Clin Microbiol. 51:1040-1045.
4. Sinha, A., S. Sengupta, S. Guin, S. Dutta, S. Ghosh, P. Mukherjee, A.K. Mukhopadhyay, T. Ramamurthy, Y. Takeda, T. Kurakawa, K. Nomoto, G.B. Nair, and R.K. Nandy. 2013. Culture-independent real-time PCR reveals extensive polymicrobial infections in hospitalized diarrhoea cases in Kolkata, India. Clin Microbiol Infect. 19:173-180.
5. Chowdhury, G., S. Ghosh, G. P. Pazhani, B. K. Paul, D. Maji, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, and T. Ramamurthy 2013. Isolation and Characterization of Pandemic and Non-pandemic Strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from an Outbreak of Diarrhea in North 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India. Foodborne Pathogens and Dis. 10:338-342.
6. Dutta, D., G. Chowdhury, G. P. Pazhani, S. Guin, S. Dutta, S. Ghosh, K. Rajendran, R. K. Nandy, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, M. K. Bhattacharya, U. Mitra, Y. Takeda, G. B. Nair, and T. Ramamurthy. 2013. Vibrio cholerae Non-O1, Non-O139 Serogroups and Cholera-like Diarrhea, Kolkata, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 19:464-467.
[2012]
1. Ley B, AM Khatib, K. Thriemer, L. von Seidlein, J. Deen, A.K. Mukhopadhyay , N.Y. Chang, R. Hashim, W. Schmied, C.J. Busch, R. Reyburn, T. Wierzba, J.D. Clemens, H. Wilfing, G. Enwere, T. Aguado, M.S. Jiddawi, D. Sack, S.M. Ali. 2012. Evaluation of a rapid dipstick (Crystal VC) for the diagnosis of cholera in Zanzibar and a comparison with previous studies. PLoS One; 7(5):e36930.
2. Kumar N, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, R. Patra, R. De, R. Baddam, S. Shaik, J. Alam, S. Tiruvayipati, N. Ahmed. 2012. Next-Generation Sequencing and De Novo Assembly, Genome Organization, and Comparative Genomic Analyses of the Genomes of Two Helicobacter pylori Isolates from Duodenal Ulcer Patients in India. J Bacteriol. 194: 5963-5964.
 
3. Chowdhury G, G.P. Pazhani, D. Dutta, S. Guin, S. Dutta, S. Ghosh, H. Izumiya, M. Asakura, S. Yamasaki, Y. Takeda, E. Arakawa, H. Watanabe, A.K. Mukhopadhyay, M.K. Bhattacharya, K. Rajendran, G.B. Nair and T. Ramamurthy. 2012. Vibrio fluvialis in Patients with Diarrhea, Kolkata, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 18: 1868-1871
 
4. Khatib AM, M. Ali, L. von Seidlein, D.R. Kim, R. Hashim, R. Reyburn, B. Ley, K. Thriemer, G. Enwere, R. Hutubessy, M.T. Aguado, M.P. Kieny, A.L. Lopez, T.F. Wierzba, S.M. Ali SM, A.A. Saleh, A.K. Mukhopadhyay, J. Clemens, M.S. Jiddawi, J. Deen. 2012 Effectiveness of an oral cholera vaccine in Zanzibar: findings from a mass vaccination campaign and observational cohort study.. Lancet Infect Dis.12:837-844
 
5. Patra R., S. Chattopadhyay, R. De, P. Ghosh, M. Ganguly, A. Chowdhury, T. Ramamurthy, G. B. Nair, and A. K. Mukhopadhyay. 2012. Multiple infection and microdiversity among Helicobacter pylori isolates in a single host in India. PLoS ONE 7: e43370
 
6. Kumar, R., A.K. Mukhopadhyay, P. Ghosh and D. N. Rao. 2012. Comparative transcriptomics of Helicobacter pylori strains 26695 Δhp0051 and AM5Δhp0051: Possible roles of cytosine methylation in gene regulation. PLoS ONE 7: e42303.
 
7. Alam J, S. Maiti S, P. Ghosh, R. De, A. Chowdhury, S. Das, R. Macaden, H. Devarbhavi, T. Ramamurthy, A. K. Mukhopadhyay. 2012. Significant association of dupA of Helicobacter pylori with duodenal ulcer development in South East Indian population. J Med Microbiol. 61:1295-1302.
 
8. Kumar R., V. Sabareesh, A.K. Mukhopadhyay, and D.N. Rao. 2012. Mutations in hpyAVIBM, C(5) cytosine DNA methyltransferase from Helicobacter pylori result in relaxed specificity. FEBS J. 279:1082-1092
 
9.. Chattopadhyay S, R. Patra, R. Chatterjee, R. De, J. Alam, T. Ramamurthy, A. Chowdhury, G. B. Nair, D. E. Berg, and A. K. Mukhopadhyay. 2012. Distinct repeat motifs at the C-terminal region of CagA of Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from diseased patients and asymptomatic individuals in West Bengal, India. Gut Pathogens.4:4.
 
10. Sinha, A, S. SenGupta, S. Ghosh, S. Basu, D. Sur, S. Kanungo, A.K. Mukhopadhyay, T. Ramamurthy, K. Nagamani, Narsing Rao M. and R.K. Nandy. 2012. Evaluation of a rapid dipstick test for identifying cholera cases during the outbreak. Indian J Med Res. 135: 523-528.
 
11. Naha A., G.P. Pazhani, M. Ganguly, S. Ghosh, T. Ramamurthy, R.K. Nandy, G.B. Nair, Y. Takeda, and A. K. Mukhopadhyay. 2012. Development and Evaluation of a PCR Assay for Tracking the Emergence and Dissemination of Haitian Variant ctxB in Vibrio cholerae O1 Strains Isolated from Kolkata, India. J. Clin. Microbiol. 50: 1733-1736.
 
12. Kurakawa T., H. Kubota, H. Tsuji, K. Matsuda, T. Asahara, T. Takahashi, T. Ramamurthy, T. Hamabata, E. Takahashi, S.I. Miyoshi, K. Okamoto, A.K. Mukhopadhyay, Y. Takeda, and K. Nomoto. 2012. Development of a sensitive rRNA-targeted reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction for detection of Vibrio cholerae/mimicus, V. parahaemolyticus/alginolyticus and Campylobacter jejuni/coli. Microbiol. Immunol. 56: 10-20.
 
13. Bhuiyan N.A., S. Nusrin, M. Ansaruzzaman, A. Islam, M. Sultana, M. Alam, M.A. Islam, A. Cravioto, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, G. B. Nair, J.C.L. Mwansa and H. P. Endtz. 2012. Genetic characterization of Vibrio cholerae O1 strains isolated in Zambia during 1996–2004 possessing the unique VSP-II region of El Tor variant. Epidemiol. Infect. 140: 510-518.
 
 
[2011]
1 Mehrotra, S., R. Jamwal, R. Shyam, D. K. Meena, K. Mishra, R. Patra, R. De, A.K. Mukhopadhyay, A.K. Srivastava, S. Paul Nandi. 2011. Anti-Helicobacter pylori and antioxidant properties of Emblica officinalis pulp extract; a potential source for therapeutic use against gastric ulcer. J Med Plants Res. 5:2577-2583.
 
2. Kundu P., R. De, I. Pal, A.K. Mukhopadhyay D.R. Saha, S. Swarnakar. 2011. Curcumin Alleviates Matrix Metalloproteinase-3 and -9 Activities During Eradication of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Cultured Cells and Mice. PLoS One 6:e 16306.
3. Patra R., S. Chattopadhyay, R. De, S. Datta, A. Chowdhury, T. Ramamurthy, G. B. Nair, D. E. Berg, and A. K. Mukhopadhyay. 2011. Intact cag Pathogenicity Island of Helicobacter pylori without Disease Association in Kolkata, India. Int. J Med Microbiol. 301: 293-302.
4. Patra T., S. Chatterjee, A. Raychoudhuri, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, T. Ramamurthy, R.K. Nandy. 2011. Emergence andprogressionof Vibrio cholerae O1 ElTor variants and progenitor strains of Mozambique variants in Kolkata, India. Int. J Med Microbiol. 301: 310-317.
[2010]
1.   Ghosh-Banerjee, J., M. Senoh, T. Takahashi, T. Hamabata, S. Barman, H. Koley, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, T. Ramamurthy, S. Chatterjee, M. Asakura, S. Yamasaki, G.B. Nair, and Y. Takeda. 2010. Cholera toxin production by El Tor variant of Vibrio cholerae O1 as compared to prototype El Tor and classical biotypes. J Clin Microbiol. 48: 4283-4286.
       
2.   Mukherjee P., S. Ghosh, T. Ramamurthy, M. K. Bhattacharya, R. K. Nandy, Y. Takeda, G. B. Nair and A. K. Mukhopadhyay. 2010. Evaluation of a rapid immunochromatographic dipstick kit for the diagnosis of cholera emphasizes its outbreak utility. Jpn. J. Infect. Dis. 63: 234-238.
       
3.   Albert M.J., H. M. Al-Akbal, R. Dhar, R. De, and A.K. Mukhopadhyay. 2010. Genetic affinities of Helicobacter pylori isolates from ethnic Arabs in Kuwait. Gut Pathog. 2: 1-6.
       
4 Kumar R., A. K. Mukhopadhyay and D.N. Rao. 2010. Characterization of an N6 adenine methyltransferase from Helicobacter pylori strain 26695 which methylates adjacent adenines on the same strand. FEBS J. 277:1666-1683.
5. Raychoudhuri, A., P. Mukherjee, T. Ramamurthy, R.K. Nandy, Y. Takeda, G.B. Nair and A. K. Mukhopadhyay. 2010. Genetic analysis of CTX prophages with special reference to ctxB and rstR alleles of Vibrio cholerae O139 strains isolated from Kolkata over a decade. FEMS Microbiol Lett 303:107–115.
[2009]
1. Chatterjeem, S., K. Ghosh, A. Raychoudhuri, G. Chowdhury, M. K. Bhattacharya, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, T. Ramamurthy, S. K. Bhattacharya, K. E. Klose, R. K. Nandy. 2009. Incidence, virulence factors, and clonality among clinical strains of non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae isolates from hospitalized diarrheal patients in Kolkata, India. J Clin Microbiol. 47: 1087-95.
2. De, R., P. Kundu, S. Swarnakar, T. Ramamurthy, A. Chowdhury, G. B. Nair and A. K. Mukhopadhyay. 2009. Antimicrobial activity of curcumin against Indian Helicobacter pylori and also during mice infection. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 53: 1592-1597.
3. Saha, D. R., S. Datta, S. Chattopadhyay, R. Patra, R. De, K. Rajendran, A. Chowdhury, T. Ramamurthy and A. K. Mukhopadhyay. 2009. Indistinguishable cellular changes in gastric mucosa between Helicobacter pylori infected asymptomatic tribals and duodenal ulcer patients. World J. Gastroenterology. 15: 1105-1112.
4. Chatterjeem, S., T. Patra, K. Ghosh, A. Raychoudhuri, G. P. Pahzani, M. Das, B. L. Sarkar, R. K. Bhadra, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, Y. Takeda, G. B. Nair, T. Ramamurthy and R. K. Nandy. 2009. Vibrio cholerae O1 clinical strains of 1992 at Kolkata with progenitor traits of 2004 Mozambique variant. J. Med. Microbiol. 58: 239-247.
5. Raychoudhuri, A., A. K. Mukhopadhyay, T. Ramamurthy, R. K. Nandy, Y. Takeda and G. B. Nair. 2008. Biotyping of Vibrio cholerae O1: Time to Redefine the Scheme. Ind J. Med Res. 128: 695-698.
6. Raychoudhuri, A., T. Patra, K. Ghosh, T. Ramamurthy, R. K. Nandy, Y. Takeda, G. B. Nair and A. K. Mukhopadhyay. 2009. Classical ctxB in Vibrio cholerae O1, Kolkata, India. Emerging Infect Dis. 15: 131-132.
[2008]
1. Raychoudhuri, A., A. K. Mukhopadhyay, T. Ramamurthy, R. K. Nandy, Y. Takeda and G. B. Nair. 2008. Biotyping of Vibrio cholerae O1: Time to Redefine the Scheme. Ind J. Med Res. 128: 695-698.
2. Chakraborty, K., S. Ghosh, H. Koley, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, T. Ramamurthy, D. R. Saha, D. Mukhopadhyay, S. Roychowdhury, T. Hamabata, Y. Takeda and S. S. Das. 2008. Bacterial exotoxins downregulate cathelicidin (hCAP-18/LL-37) and human beta-defensin 1 (HBD-1) expression in the intestinal epithelial cells. Cell. Microbiol. 10: 2520-2537.
3. Khan, R., S. Nahar, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, D. E. Berg, M. Ahmad, K. Okamoto, G. B. Nair and M. Rahman. 2008. Isolation of tetracycline-resistant clinical Helicobacter pylori in Bangladesh without mutations in 16S rRNA gene. Microbiol. Immunol. 52: 508-511.
4.   Hisatsune, J., M. Nakayama, H. Isomoto, H. Kurazono, N. Mukaida, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, T. Azuma, Y. Yamaoka, J. Sap, E. Yamasaki, K. Yahiro, J. Moss and T. Hirayama. 2008. Molecular Characterization of Helicobacter pylori VacA Induction of IL-8 in U937 Cells Reveals a Prominent Role for p38MAPK in Activating Transcription Factor-2, cAMP Response Element Binding Protein, and NF-{kappa}B Activation. J. Immunol. 180: 5017-5027.
5.   Roychowdhury, A., A. Pan, D. Dutta, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, T. Ramamurthy, R. K. Nandy, S. K. Bhattacharya and M. K. Bhattacharya. 2008. Emergence of Tetracycline-Resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 Serotype Inaba, in Kolkata, India. Jpn. J. Infect. Dis. 61: 128-129.
[2007]
1.   Raychoudhuri, A., S. Chatterjee, G. P. Pazhani, R. K. Nandy, M. K. Bhattacharya, S. K. Bhattacharya, T. Ramamurthy and A. K. Mukhopadhyay. 2007. Molecular characterization of recent Vibrio cholerae O1, El Tor, Inaba strains isolated from hospitalized patients in Kolkata, India during 2004-05. J. Infect. 55: 431-438.
2   Chatterjee, S., K. Ghosh, A. Raychoudhuri, A. Pan, M. K. Bhattacharya, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, T. Ramamurthy, S. K. Bhattacharya and R. K. Nandy. 2007. Phenotypic and genotypic traits and epidemiologic implication of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 strains in India during 2003. J. Med. Microbiol. 56: 824-832.
3.   Sen, B., B. Dutta, S. Chatterjee, M. K. Bhattacharya, R. K. Nandy, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, B. D. N. Gangopadhyay, S. K. Bhattacharya and T. Ramamurthy. 2007. The first outbreak of acute diarrhea due to pandemic strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6 in Kolkata, India. Internal. J. Infect. Dis. 11: 185-187.
[2006]
1.   Kundu, P., A. K. Mukhopadhyay, R. Patra, A. Banerjee, D. E. Berg and S. Swarnakar. 2006. Cag pathogenicity island-independent up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases-9 and -2 secretion and expression in mice by Helicobacter pylori infection. J. Biol. Chem. 281: 34651-34662.
2.   Srinivasan, V. B., R. K. Virk, A. Kaundal, R. Chakraborty, B. Datta, T. Ramamurthy, A. K. Mukhopadhyay and A. Ghosh. 2006. Mechanism of drug resistance in clonally related clinical isolates of Vibrio fluvialis isolated in Kolkata, India. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 50: 2428-2432.
3.   Dutta, B., R. Ghosh, N. C. Sharma, G. P. Pazhani, N. Taneja, A. Raychowdhuri, B. L. Sarkar, S. K. Mondal, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, R. K. Nandy, M. K. Bhattacharya, S. K. Bhattacharya and T. Ramamurthy. 2006. Spread of cholera with newer clones of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor, serotype inaba, in India. J. Clin Microbiol. 44: 3391-3393.
4.   Chakraborty, R., S. Sinha, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, M. Asakura, S. Yamasaki, S. K. Bhattacharya, G. B. Nair and T. Ramamurthy. 2006. Species-specific identification of Vibrio fluvialis by PCR targeted to the conserved transcriptional activation and variable membrane tether regions of toxR gene. J. Med. Microbiol. 55: 805-808.
5.   Saha, A., R. Deb, S. Shah, T. Ramamurthy, S. Shinoda, A. K. Mukhophadyay and R. K. Bhadra. 2006. A PCR based identification of Vibrio cholerae, its biotypes and closely related Vibrio mimicus targeting the chromosomal origin of replication (oriCIVC) of V. cholerae. FEMS. Micrbiol. Lett. 257: 84-91.
[2005]
1.   Datta, S., S. Chattopadhyay, A. Chowdhury, A. Santra, D. R. Saha, T. Ramamurthy, S. K. Bhattacharya, D. E. Berg, G. B. Nair and A. K. Mukhopadhyay. 2005. Diagnosis and genotyping of Helicobacter pylori by polymerase chain reaction of bacterial DNA from gastric juice. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 20: 1253-1259.
2.   Datta, S., S. Chattopadhyay, R. Patra, R. De, T. Ramamurthy, J. Hembram, A. Chowdhury, S. K. Bhattacharya, D. E. Berg, G. B. Nair and A. K. Mukhopadhyay. 2005. Most Helicobacter pylori strains of Kolkata in India are resistant to metronidazole but susceptible to other drugs commonly used for eradication and ulcer therapy. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 22: 51-57.
3.   Chakraborty, R., S. Chakraborty, K. De, S. Sinha, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, J. Khanam, T. Ramamurthy, Y. Takeda, S. K. Bhattacharya and G. B. Nair. 2005. Cytotoxic and cell vacuolating activity of Vibrio fluvialis isolated form paediatric patients with diarrhoea. J. Med. Microbiol. 54: 707-716.
[2004]
1.   Kalia, A., A. K. Mukhopadhyay, G. Dailide, Y. Ito, T. Azuma, B. C. Wong and D. E. Berg. 2004. Evolutionary Dynamics of Insertion Sequences in Helicobacter pylori. J. Bacteriol. 186: 7508-7520.
2.   Nahar, S., A. K. Mukhopadhyay, R. Khan, M. M. Ahmad, S. Datta, S. Sarker, L. Engstrand, S. Ahmed, D. E. Berg, G. B. Nair and M. Rahman. 2004. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from Bangladesh. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 4856-4858.
3.   Chattopadhyay, S., R. Patra, T. Ramamurthy, A. Chowdhury, A. Santra, G. K. Dhali, S. K. Bhattacharya, D. E. Berg, G. B Nair and A. K. Mukhopadhyay. 2004. Multiplex PCR assay for rapid detection and genotyping of Helicobacter pylori directly from biopsy specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 2821-2824.
4.   Dailidiene, D., G. Dailide, M. Zhang, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, K. Ogura, K. A. Eaton, G. Cattoli, J. G. Kusters and D. E. Berg. 2004. Helicobacter acinonychis: genetic and rodent infection studies of a Helicobacter pylori-like gastric pathogen of cheetahs and other big cats. J. Bacteriol. 186: 356-365.
[2003]
1.   Datta, S., S. Chattopadhyay, G. B. Nair, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, J. Hembram, D. E. Berg, D. R. Saha, A. Khan, A. Santra, S. K. Bhattacharya and A. Chowdhury. 2003. Virulence genes and neutral DNA markers of Helicobacter pylori isolates from different ethnic communities of West Bengal, India. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41: 3737-3743.
2.   Kersulyte, D., B. Velapatino, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, L. Cahuayme, A. Bussalleu, J. Combe, R. H. Gilman and D. E. Berg. 2003. Cluster of type IV secretion genes in Helicobacter pylori’s plasticity zone. J. Bacteriol. 185: 3764-3772.
3.   Rahman, H., A. K. Mukhopadhyay, S. Nahar, S. Datta, M. Mian, S. Sarker, I. M. Masud, L. Engstrand, M. J. Albert, G. B. Nair and D. E. Berg. 2003. DNA-level characterization of Helicobacter pylori strains from patients with overt disease and with benign infections in Bangladesh. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41: 2008-2014.
4.   Mukhopadhyay, A. K., J. Y. Jeong, D. Dailidiene, P. S. Hoffman and D. E. Berg. 2003. The fdxA ferredoxin gene can down-regulate frxA nitroreductase gene expression and is essential in many strains of Helicobacter pylori. J. Bacteriol. 185: 2927-2935.
5.   Chaudhuri, S., A. Choudhury, S. Datta, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, S. Chattopadhyay, D. R. Saha, G. Dhali, A. Santra, G. B. Nair, S. K. Bhattacharya and D. E. Berg. 2003. Anti - Helicobacter pylori therapy in India: Differences in eradication efficiency associated with particular alleles of vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA) gene. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 18: 190-195.
[2002]
1.   Chattopadhyay, S., S. Datta, A. Chowdhury, S. Chowdhury, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, K. Rajendran, S. K. Battacharya, D. E. Berg and G. B. Nair. 2002. Virulence genes in Helicobacter pylori strains from West Bengal residents with overt H. pylori-associated disease and healthy volunteers. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40: 2622-2625.
2.   Dailidiene, D., M. T. Bertoli, J. Miciuleyiciene, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, G. Dailide, M. A. Pascasio, L. Kupcinskas and D. E. Berg. 2002. Emergence of tetracycline resistance in Helicobacter pylori: multiple mutational changes in 16S ribosomal DNA and other genetic loci. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46: 3940-3946.
3.   Sisson, G., A. Goodwin, A. Raudonikiene, N. J. Hughes, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, D. E. Berg and P. S. Hoffman. 2002. Enzymes associated with reductive activation and action of nitazoxanide, nitrofurans and metronidazole in Helicobacter pylori. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46: 2116-2123.
4.   Datta, S., A. Chowdhury, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, S. K. Bhattacharya, D. E. Berg and G. B. Nair. 2002. Molecular and evolutionary genetics of the gastric pathogen, Helicobacter pylori. Ind. J. Med. Res. 115: 73-101.
5.   Chowdhury, A., D. E .Berg, J. Y. Jeong, A. K. Mukhopadhyay and G. B. Nair. 2002. Metronidazole resistance in Helicobacter pylori: Magnitude, Mechanism and Implications for India. Indian J. Gastroenterol. 21: 23-28.
6.   Kersulyte, D., B. Velapatiño, G. Dailide, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, Y. Ito, L. Cahuayme, A. J. Parkinson, R. H. Gilman and D. E. Berg. 2002. Transposable element ISHp608 of Helicobacter pylori: non-random geographic distribution, functional organization and insertion specificity. J. Bacteriol. 184: 992-1002.
[2001]
1.   Datta, S., H. Kurazono, S. Chattopadhyay, A. Chowdhury, S. Chaudhury, S. K. Bhattacharya, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, D. E. Berg, T. Hirayama and G. B. Nair. 2001. Estimation of vacuolating cytotoxin secreted by different strains of Helicobacter pylori using bead-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and its correlation with bacterial genotype. Indian J. Med. Res. 114: 192-198.
2.   Jeong, J. Y., A. K. Mukhopadhyay, D. Daillidiene, P. S. Hoffman and D. E. Berg. 2001. Roles of FrxA and RdxA nitroreductases of Helicobacter pylori in susceptibility and resistance to metronidazole. J. Bacteriol. 183: 5155-5162.
3.   Mukhopadhyay, A. K., S. Chakraborty, S. T. Shimada, Y. Takeda, G. B. Nair and D. E. Berg. 2001. Characterization of CTX and VPI prophages in environmental strains of Vibrio choleare. J. Bacteriol. 183: 4737-4746.
[2000]
1.   Wang, W. H., B. C. Wong, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, D. E. Berg, C. H. Cho, K. C. Lai, W. H. Hu, F. M. Fung, W. M. Hui and S. K. Lam. 2000. High prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection with dual resistance to metronidazole and clarithromycin in Hong Kong. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 14: 901-910.
2.   Kersulyte, D., A. K. Mukhopadhyay, M. Shirai, T. Nakazawa and D. E. Berg. 2000. Functional organization and insertion specificity of IS607, a chimaeric element of Helicobacter pylori. J. Bacteriol. 182: 5300-5308.
3.   Jeong, J. Y., A. K. Mukhopadhyay, D. Daillidiene, Y. Wang, B. Velapatino, R. H. Gilman, A. J. Perkinson, G. B. Nair, B. Wong, S. K. Lam, R. Mistry, I. Segal, Y. Yuan, H. Gao, T. Alarcon, M. L. Brea, Y. Ito, D. Kersulyte, H. K. Lee, Y. Gong, A. Goodwin, P. S. Hoffman and D. E. Berg. 2000. Sequential inactivation of rdxA (HP0954) and frxA (HP0642) nitroreductase genes causes moderate and high-level metronidazole resistance in Helicobacter pylori. J. Bacteriol. 182: 5082-5090.
4.   Kersulyte, D., A. K. Mukhopadhyay, B. Velapatiño, W. W. Su, Z. J. Pan, C. Garcia, V. Hernandez, Y. Valdez, R. S. Mistry, R. H. Gilman, Y. Yuan, H. Gao, T. Alarcon, M. Lopez Brea, G. B. Nair, A. Chowdhury, S. Datta, M. Shirai, T. Nakazawa, R. Ally, I. Segal, B. C. Y. Wong, S. K. Lam, F. Olfat, T. Boren, L. Engstrand, O. Torres, R. Schneider, J. E. Thomas, S. Czinn and D. E. Berg. 2000. Differences in Genotypes of Helicobacter pylori from Different Human Populations. J. Bacteriol. 182: 3210-3218.
5.   Mitra, R., P. Figueroa, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, T. Shimada, Y. Takeda, D. E. Berg and G. B. Nair. 2000. Cell vacuolation, a manifestation of the El tor hemolysin of vibrio cholerae. Infect. Immun. 68: 1928-1933.
6.   Mukhopadhyay, A. K., D. Kersulyte, J. Y. Jeong, S. Datta, Y. Ito, A. Chowdhury, S. Chowdhury, A. Santra, S. K. Bhattacharya, T. Azuma, G. B. Nair and D. E. Berg. 2000. Distinctiveness of genotypes of Helicobacter pylori in Calcutta, India. J. Bacteriol. 182: 3219-3227.
7.   Chakraborty, S., A. K. Mukhopadhyay, R. K. Bhadra, A. N. Ghosh, R. Mitra, T. Shimada, S. Yamasaki, S. M. Faruque, Y. Takeda, R. R. Colwell and G. B. Nair. 2000. Virulence genes in environmental strains of Vibrio cholerae. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66: 4022-4028.
8.   Basu, A., A. K. Mukhopadhyay, P. Garg, S. Chakraborty, T. Ramamurthy, S. Yamasaki, Y. Takeda and G. B Nair. 2000. Diversity in the arrangement of the, CTX prophages in Classical Strains of Vibrio cholerae O1. FEMS. Microbiol. Lett. 182: 35-40.
9.   Bhattacharya, M. K., S. Ghosh, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, A. Deb and S. K. Bhattacharya. 2000. Outbreak of cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae 01 intermediately resistant to norfloxacin at Malda, West Bengal. J. Ind. Med. Assoc. 98: 389-390.
[1999]
1   Thungapathra, M., C. Sharma, N. Gupta, R. K. Ghosh, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, H. Koley, G. B. Nair and A. Ghosh. 1999. Construction of a recombinant live oral vaccine from a non-toxigenic strain of Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype Inaba biotype El Tor and assessment of its reactogenicity and immunogenicity in the rabbit model. Immunol. Lett. 68: 219-227.
2.   Koley, H., R. Mitra, A. Basu, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, P. K. Saha, B. S. Ramakrishna, S. Krishnan, Y. Takeda and G. B. Nair. 1999. Response of wild type mutants of Vibrio cholerae O1 possessing different combination of virulence genes in the ligated rabbit ileal loop and in ussing chambers: Evidence for the presence of additional secretogen. J. Med. Microbiol. 48: 51-57.
[1998]
1.   Hoshino, K., S. Yamazaki, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, S. Chakravarty, A. Basu, S. K. Bhattacharya, G. B. Nair, T. Shimada and Y. Takeda. 1998. Development and evaluation of a multiplex PCR assay for rapid detection of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139. FEMS Microbiol. Immunol. 20: 201-207.
2.   Sharma, C., M. Thungapathra, A. Ghosh, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, A. Basu, R. Mitra, I. Basu, S. K. Bhattacharya, T. Shimada, T. Ramamurthy, T. Takeda, S. Yamasaki, Y. Takeda and G. B. Nair. 1998. Molecular analysis of non-O1 non-O139 Vibrio cholerae associated with an unusual upsurge in the incidence of cholera-like diseases in Calcutta, India. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 756-763.
3.   Sharma, C., A. Ghosh, R. K. Ghosh, A. K. Mukhopadhyay and G. B. Nair. 1998. Molecular analysis of the cholera toxin gene & antibiotic sensitivity profile of vibrio cholerae O1 & O139 associated with mixed infection. Indian J. Med. Res. 107: 199-203.
4.   Basu, A., A. K. Mukhopadhyay, C. Sharma, J. Jyot, N. Gupta, A. Ghosh, S. K. Bhattacharya, Y. Takeda, A. S. G. Faruque, M. J. Albert and G. B. Nair. 1998. Heterogeneity in the organization of the CTX genetic element in strains of Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal isolated from Calcutta, India and Dhaka, Bangladesh and its plausible link to the dissimilar incidence of the O139 cholera in the two locales. Microbiol. Pathogen. 24: 175-183.
.5   Bhattacharya, M. K., D. Dutta, S. K. Bhattacharya, A. Deb, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, G. B. Nair, T. Shimada, Y. Takeda, A. Chowdhury and D. Mahalanabis. 1998. Association of a disease approximating cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae of serogroups other than O1 and O139. Epidemiol. Infect. 120: 1-5.
6.   Bhattacharya, M. K., D. Dutta, A. Deb, P. Garg, S. Chakraborty, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, S. K. Bhattacharya and A. Moitra. 1998. Acute secretory traveller's diarrhoea caused by Vibrio cholerae which does not belong to the O1 or O139 serogroup. Natl. Med. J. India. 11: 248-249.
7.   Mukhopadhyay, A. K., A. Basu, P. Garg, P. K. Bag, A. Ghosh, S. K. Bhattacharya, Y. Takeda and G. B. Nair. 1998. Molecular epidemiology of reemergent Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal in India. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 2149-2152.
[1997]
1.   Okuda, J., M. Ishibashi, E. Hayakaya, T. Nishino, Y. Takeda, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, S. Garg, S. K. Bhattacharya, G. B. Nair and M. Nishibuchi. 1997. Emergence of a unique rapidly disseminating O3: K6 clone of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Calcutta, India and Southeast Asian countries. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 3150-3155.
2.   Radhakutty, G., B. K. Sircar, S. K. Mondal, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, R. Mitra, A. Basu, R. L. Ichhpiyini, G. B. Nair and S. K. Bhattacharya. 1997. Outbreak of cholera in Alleppey and Palghat districts, South India: Epidemiological features and virulence traits of epidemic strains. Indian J. Med. Res. 106: 455-457.
3.   Basu, A., A. K. Mukhopadhyay, A. K. Chakrabarty, S. K. Niyogi, M.R. Saha, S. Yamasaki, Y. Takeda and G. B. Nair. 1997. Comparison between mutiplex PCR, sensitivity to biotype specific phages and polymixin B for biotyping of Vibrio cholerae O1. Indian J. Med. Res. 106: 491-493.
4.   Sharma, C., S. Maiti, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, A. Basu, I. Basu, G. B. Nair, R. Mukhopadhyaya, B. Das, S. Kar, R. K. Ghosh and A. Ghosh. 1997. Unique organization of the CTX genetic element in Vibrio cholerae O139 strains which reemerged in calcutta, India in September, 1996. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 3348-3350.
5.   Sharma, C., G. B. Nair, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, S. K. Bhattacharya, R. K. Ghosh and A. Ghosh. 1997. Molecular characterization of V.cholerae O1 biotype ElTor strains isolated between 1992 and 1995 in Calcutta, India: Evidence for the emergence of a new clone of the ElTor biotype. J. Infect. Dis. 175: 1134-1141.
6.   Mukhopadhyay, A. K., I. Basu, S. K. Bhattacharya, M. K. Bhattacharya and G. B. Nair. 1997. Emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant strains of Vibrio cholerae isolated from hospitalized patients with acute diarrhoea in Calcutta, India. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42: 206-207.
[1996]
1   Garg, S., A. N. Ghosh, A. K. Mukhopadhyay and G. B. Nair. 1996. Electron microscopic studies on Vibrio cholerae O139. Indian J. Med. Res. 104: 134-138.
2.   Saha, P. K., H. Koley, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, S. K. Bhattacharya, G. B. Nair, B. S. Ramakrishna, S. Krishnan, T. Takeda and Y. Takeda. 1996. Nontoxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype Inaba biotype ElTor Associated with a cluster of cases of cholera in Southern India. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 1114-1117.
3   Dutta, D., S. K. Bhattacharya, M. K. Bhattacharya, A. Deb, M. Deb, A. Moitra, B, Manna, A. K. Mukhopadhyay and G. B. Nair. 1996. Efficacy of norfloxacin and doxycycline for Vibrio cholerae O139 infection. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 37: 575-581.
4.   Mukhopadhyay, A. K., S. Garg, P. K. Saha, Y. Takeda, S. K. Bhattacharya and G. B. Nair. 1996. Comparative analysis of factors promoting optimal production of cholera toxin by Vibrio cholerae O1 (classical and ElTor biotypes) and O139. Indian J. Med. Res. 104: 129-133.
5.   Mukhopadhyay, A. K., S. Garg, R. Mitra, A. Basu, D. Dutta, S. K. Bhattacharya, T. Shimada, T. Takeda, Y. Takeda and G. B. Nair. 1996. Temporal shifts in traits of Vibrio cholerae isolated from hospitalized patients in Calcutta: a three-year (1993-1995) analysis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 2537-2543.
[1995]
1.   Hasan, J. A. K., A. Huq, G. B. Nair, S. Garg, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, L. Loomis, D. Bernstein and R. R. Colwell. 1995. Development and testing of monoclonal antibody based rapid immunodiagnostic test kits for direct detection of Vibrio cholerae O139 synonym Bengal. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 2935-2939.

2.   Sengupta, P. G., B. K. Sircar, S. K. Mondal, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, G. B. Nair, D. N. Gupta, S. Ghosh, N. C. Saha, B. C. Deb, S. N. Sikdar, B. Manna, S. K. Bhattacharya, B. K. Mandal and S. P. Dey. 1995. Epidemiology of Vibrio cholerae O139 with special reference to intrafamilial transmission in Calcutta. J. Infect. 31: 45-47.
3.   Niyogi, S. K., P. G. Sengupta, S. K. Bhattacharya, S. Garg, A. K. Mukhopadhyay and G. B. Nair. 1995. Emergence of furazolidone and co-trimoxazole resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 in Eastern India. J. Infect. 30: 265-266. 63.
4.   Mukhopadhyay, A. K., S. Garg, G. B. Nair, S. Kar, R. K. Ghosh, S. Pajni, A. Ghosh, T. Shimada, T. Takeda and Y. Takeda. 1995. Biotype traits and antibiotic susceptibility of Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 before, during and after the emergence of the O139 serogroup. Epidemiol. Infect. 115: 427-434. 64.
5.   Mukhopadhyay, A. K., P. K. Saha, S. Garg, S. K. Bhattacharya, T. Shimada, T. Takeda, Y. Takeda and G. B. Nair. 1995. Distribution and virulence of Vibrio cholerae belonging to serogroups other than O1 and O139: A nationwide survey. Epidemiol. Infect. 114: 65-70.
[1994]
1.   Bhattacharya, S. K., M. K. Bhattacharya, D. Dutta, S. Garg, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, M. Deb, A. Moitra and G. B. Nair. 1994. Vibrio cholerae O139 in Calcutta. Arch. Dis. Child. 71: 161-162.
2.   Nair, G. B., T. Shimada, H. Kurazono, J. Okuda, A. Pal, T. Karasawa, T. Mihara, Y. Uesaka, H. Shirai, S. Garg, P. K. Saha, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, T. Ohashi, J. Tada, T. Nakayama, S. Fukushima, T. Takeda and Y. Takeda. 1994. Characterization of phenotypic, serological and toxigenic traits of Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32: 2775-2779.
3.   Nair, G. B., S. Garg, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, T. Shimada and Y. Takeda. 1994. Laboratory diagnosis of Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal, the new pandemic strain of cholera. LabMedica International. XI: 8-11.68.  
4.   Nair, G. B., T. Ramamurthy, S. K. Bhattacharya, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, S. Garg, M. K. Bhattacharya, T. Takeda, T. Shimada, Y. Takeda and B. C. Deb. 1994. Spread of Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal in India. J. Infect. Dis. 169: 1029-1034.
5.   Garg, S., T. Ramamurthy, A. K. Mukhopadhyay, B. C. Deb, G. B. Nair, T. Shimada, T. Takeda, A. Huq, R. R. Colwell and Y. Takeda. 1994. Production and cross reactivity patterns of a panel of high affinity monoclonal antibodies to Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal. FEMS. Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 8: 293-298.
 
Book Chapter:
  1. Ramamurthy T., A. K. Mukhopadhyay, R. K. Nandy and G.B. Nair. 2013. Molecular Typing of Vibrio cholerae: Imprints in the Epidemiology of Cholera. P53-72. In I. de Filippis and M.L. McKee (eds.), Molecular Typing in bacterial Infections. Humana Press; Springer. New York.
     
  2. Banerjee A., A. K. Mukhopadhyay, S. Paul, A. Bhattacharyya and S. Swarnakar. 2013. “Unveiling the Intricacies of Helicobacter pylori-Induced Gastric Inflammation: T Helper Cells and Matrix Metalloproteinases at a Crossroad” p114-151. In: G. Mozsik (ed); “Current Topics in Gastritis – 2012” (ISBN 978-953-51-0907-5) InTech publisher, Rijeka, Croatia.
     
  3. Nair, G.B., A.K. Mukhopadhyay, A. Safa, and Y. Takeda. 2008. Emerging hybrid variants of Vibrio cholerae O1, p179-190. In S. M. Faruque(ed), Vibrio cholerae: Genomics and Molecular biology. Horizon Scientific Press. Norwich, UK.
     
  4. Mukhopadhyay A.K., and G.B. Nair. 2011. The Rapid Diagnosis of Cholera: Where Do We Stand? p128-146. In D. Raghunath, V. Nagaraju (ed), Diagnostics in Infections. Macmillan Publishers India Ltd.
     
  5. Mukhopadhyay A.K., T. Ramamurthy. 2010. Asiatic Cholera: Mole Hills and Mountains. P5-29. In T. Ramamurthy, S.K. Bhattacharya (eds.), Epidemiological and Molecular Aspects on Cholera. Humana Press; Springer. http://www.springer.com/978-1-60327-264-3

 

 

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